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We know many things for certain. No one thinks that a teapot orbits the sun or that invisible fairies keep our hearts beating. No one believes that there are round squares. We know how teapots are made, we know how our hearts beat – and round squares are impossible by definition.
What of the one God, worshipped by the major religions such as Christianity and Islam?
Well, there is no evidence for such a god. We cannot prove with mathematical certainty that there is no such thing as ‘god’, because this is not a mathematical question (unlike the round square). But we can say that the arguments made for the existence of gods are not persuasive, that there is no evidence for them, and that they do not demonstrate that there is any such thing as a god.
The argument most often made for the existence of a god, the ‘Design Argument’, is that there must have been a designer of the universe, earth, and human beings. But this claim has no evidence for it. It also raises problems of its own: if the universe is a designed object, then what is it designed to do, and who designed the designer of the universe? In this way, the ‘Design Argument’ ‘solves’ one problem only by creating others.
Many people believe that the presence of great suffering
in the world refutes any claim that there is an all-powerful and good
god. On top of this, we can see that all the gods which people have ever
believed in, or do believe in, are so different from each other and so
similar to the people who believe(d) in them, that it seems that people
invented gods in their own image – and not vice versa.